ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
 
 GemstoneMohs Hardness Scale Possible EnhancementsPurpose of EnhancementFrequency stabilitycare and handling code
Gemstone A - B          
 Alexandrite 8.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care  
 Alexandrite - Narsipatnam  8.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Alexite 5.5  nonen/an/a n/aAvoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  n/a
 Amazonite - Russian  6 - 6.5 nonen/an/a n/aAvoid heat, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners n/a
 Amber - Baltic 2 - 2.5 nonen/an/a n/aAmber is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid harsh chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners n/a
 Amber - Baltic 2 - 2.5 heatedto improve appearance, deepen color, and add "sun spangles"usually good to very goodAmber is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid harsh chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners H
 Amber - Baltic 2 - 2.5 heated with oils under pressure to alter colorusually good to very goodAmber is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid harsh chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners HPHT, O
 Amber - Baltic 2 - 2.5 dyed/stainedto alter colorrarely variableAvoid repolishing. Amber is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid harsh chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners D
 Amber - Mayan Green   2 - 2.5 heatedto alter colorcommonly  Amber is very soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid harsh chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners H
 Amethyst - African7 heatedto improve colorrarely excellentNormal Care H
 Amethyst - Bahia7 HeatedTo improve colorOccasionally Very GoodNormal Care H
 Amethyst - Bolivian7 heatedto improve colorrarely excellentNormal Care H
 Amethyst - Green7 heatedto improve colorrarely excellentNormal Care H
 Amethyst - Lusaka  7 Heat treatmentTo improve colorOccasionally Very goodNormal Care.  H
 Amethyst - Moroccan 7 Nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. n/a
 Amethyst - Pink7 heatedto improve colorrarely excellentNormal Care H
 Amethyst - Rose De France  7 heatedto improve coloroccasionally excellentAvoid heat. Certain stones may fade in daylight. H
 Amethyst - Rose du Maroc 7 n/an/an/a n/aNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. n/a
 Amethyst - Uruguayan  7 heated Improve ColorCommonly ExcellentAvoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  H
 Amethyst - Zambian7 heatedto improve colorrarely excellentNormal Care H
 Ametrine - Anahi7 heatedto improve color uniformityOccasionally Very GoodNormal Care H
 Ammolite - Canadian 3.4- 4 Impregnated, Assembled Improve Color and StabilityCommonly fair - goodAvoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners.  I, ASBL
 Andalusite - Jenipapo  7 - 7.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
  Andesine - Red 6 - 6.5 DiffusedTo create colorAlways Very good Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. DF
 Angelite - Mexican3 - 3.5 no treatmentn/an/a fairAvoid harsh usage n/a
 Apatite5 HeatedTo improve colorAlways Very GoodApatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.  H
 Apatite - Blue5 HeatedTo improve colorAlways Very GoodApatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.  H
 Apatite - Canary Yellow5 Natural N/an/a goodApatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.  
 Apatite - Cat's Eye5 Heating To improve colorAlways Very GoodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. H
 Apatite - Emeraldine5 Heating To improve colorAlways Very GoodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. H
  Apatite - Forte Dauphine 5   Heated to add color always   very good   Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   n/a
 Apatite - Emerald Green5 HeatedTo improve colorAlways Very GoodApatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.  H
 Apatite - Indian Ocean  5 HeatedTo improve colorAlways Very GoodApatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.  H
 Apatite - Madagascar  5 nonen/ararely n/aApatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.  n/a
 Apatite - Madagascar  5 heatedto improve colorusually goodApatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. H
 Apatite - Madagascar Olive5 n/an/an/a n/aNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. n/a
 Apatite - Malgache Neon5 HeatingTo create colorAlways Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. H
 Apatite - Natural Green   5 nonen/ararely n/aApatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. n/a
 Apatite - Neon5 nonen/ararely n/aApatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.  
 Apatite - Paraibe5 HeatedTo improve colorAlways Very GoodApatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.  H
 Apatite - Yellow5 Natural N/an/a goodApatite is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.  
 Aquamarine - Espirito Santo  7.5 - 8 heatedto improve colorusually excellentNormal Care H
 Aqua Nueva Moss 6.0 to 7.0 n/an/an/a n/aNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. n/a
 Aragonite  - Cantonese Blue 3.5 - 4 nonen/an/a n/aAragonite is soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. Aragonite is generally unsuitable for jewelry. n/a
 Aventurine  - Green3.5 - 4 nonen/an/a n/aAragonite is soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. Aragonite is generally unsuitable for jewelry. n/a
 Azurite  - Aurora 6.5 - 7.0 DyeingTo create colorRarely Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. D
Gemstone C          
 Calsilica - Rainbow  3.0-4.0 Compositeto enhance the appearancecommonly good  n/a
 Carnelian 6.0 - 7.0 DyeingTo create colorRarely Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. D
 Carnelian 6.0 - 7.0 HeatingTo create colorVery Rarely Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. H
 Ceruliete5 – 6 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care  
 Charoite - Siberian  4.5-5 nonen/an/a n/aCharoite is somewhat sensitive to heat and pressure, so avoid the use of steam cleaners and ultrasonic cleaners, as well as any prolonged exposure to direct sun light. n/a
 Chrysocolla2.0-4.0 Iimpregenationto improve appearance and stabilityUsually  Very Good Avoid scratching, ultrasonic cleaners, harsh household chemicals, prolonged exposure to direct sunlight and excessive heat  I
 Chrysocolla - Parrot Wing2.0-4.0 Iimpregenationto improve appearance and stabilityUsually  Very Good Avoid scratching, ultrasonic cleaners, harsh household chemicals, prolonged exposure to direct sunlight and excessive heat  I
 Chrysotile5 nonen/an/a n/anormal care n/a
 Chrysoprase  - Australian6 - 7 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Citrine - Brazilian7 irradiatedto create colorunknown excellentNormal Care IR
 Citrine - Brazilian 7 HeatedTo Improve colorCommonly Very GoodNormal Care H
 Citrine - Madeira7 heatedto alter colorusually excellentNormal Care H
 Citrine - Red7 HeatedCreate and improve colorAlways Very GoodNormal care. H
 Citrine - Santa Anna Madeira  7 heatedto alter colorusually excellentNormal Care H
 Citrine - Santa Anna Madeira   7 irradiatedto create colorunknown excellentNormal Care IR
 Coral - Angel Skin Mediterranean 3 - 4  nonen/an/a n/aAvoid scratching, temperature changes, steaming, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.  
 Coral - Mediterranean Natural 3 - 4 nonen/an/a n/aAvoid scratching, temperature changes, steaming, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. n/a
 Coral - Sponge 3.5 Dyeing; ImpregnationTo create color; To increase durabilityRarely Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. D, I
Gemstone D          
 Danburite -Rose7  CoatingTo create color Always Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. C
 Diamond 10 NaturalNANA goodNormal Care NA
  Diamond - Champagne 10   N/A N/A N/A   N/A Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   n/a
 Diamond - Black  10 irradiated / heated to create color and improve clarity commonly  fair to good Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners  IR H
 Diamond - Blue  10 irradiatedto create coloroccasionally excellent to very goodNormal Care IR
 Diamond - Blue  10 Irradiation, high pressure high temperatureto create colorAlways Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. IR, HPHT
 Diamond - Canary Yellow 10 NaturalNANA goodNormal Care NA
 Diamond - Green  10 irradiatedto create coloroccasionally excellent to very goodNormal Care IR
 Diamond - Pink 10 NoneN/AN/A N/A Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. N/A
 Diamond - Purple  10 irradiatedto create coloroccasionally excellent to very goodNormal Care IR
 Diamond - Red 10 Irradiation; High pressure heat treatmentTo create color; To improve colorAlways; Occasionally Very GoodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. IR; HPHT
 Diamond - Yellow  10 irradiatedto create coloroccasionally excellent to very goodNormal Care IR
 Diamond - Yellow 10 N/AN/AN/A N/ANormal Care NA
 Diopside - Indian Black Star  5 - 6 nonen/an/a n/aDiopside is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid sudden temperature changes and harsh chemicals. n/a
 Diopside - Russian  5 - 6 nonen/an/a n/aDiopside is moderately soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid sudden temperature changes and harsh chemicals. n/a
 Dino Bone6.5 to 7 Stabilized Improve Durability Always Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  S
Gemstone E          
 Emerald7.5-8 None n/an/a n/aNormal Care and Handling  n/a
 Emerald - Boyaca Colombian 7.5-8 None n/an/a n/aNormal Care and Handling  n/a
 Emerald - Boyaca Colombian 7.5-8 oiled/resin infusedto improve clarityRarely  Fair Avoid heat, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners 0
 Emerald - Boyaca Colombian 7.5 - 8 Filled Improve Appearance and Clarity Commonly  Variable Normal Care and Handling  F
 Emerald - Boyaca Columbian7.5-8 Dyed Improve Color rarely Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  D
 Emerald - Kagem Zambian7.5 - 8 Filled Improve Appearance and Clarity Commonly  Variable Normal Care and Handling  F
 Emerald - Kagem Zambian 7.5 - 8 Oiled/Resin Infused Improve Appearance and Stability Always  Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  O
 Emerald - Premium7.5 - 8 Filled Improve Appearance and Clarity Commonly  Variable Normal Care and Handling  F
 Eudialyte - Russian  5 - 5.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
Gemstone F          
 Feldspar - Black  6.5 Nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care IR
 Fluorite - Belgian Teal 4 n/an/an/a n/aNormal care n/a
 Fluorite - Canary Yellow 4 Heating, irradiationTo improve colorCommon Very goodNormal care H, IR
 Fluorite - Chinese Blue  4 None n/a n/a  n/a Avoid sudden temperature changes, steaming, chemicals and ultrasonic  n/a
 Fluorite - Color Changing4 Irradiation To create color Always Very goodNormal care I
 Fluorite - Mint Green   4 None n/a n/a  n/a Avoid sudden temperature changes, steaming, chemicals and ultrasonic  n/a
 Fluorite - Purple 4 IrradiationTo create or improve colorAlways Very goodNormal care IR
Gemstone G          
 Garnet - Ambanja Demantoid6.5 - 7 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Garnet - Anthill6.5 - 7 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
  Garnet - Brazilian Mint (also known as Merelani Mint) 7 - 7.5   None N/A N/A   N/A Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   n/a
 Garnet - Brazil Red7 - 7.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Garnet - Karo Tsavorite  7 - 7.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care, Avoid sudden temperature changes. n/a
 Garnet - Merelani Color Change 7  nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. n/a
 Garnet  - Madagascar Color Change 7 - 7.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Garnet - Malaya7 - 7.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care  
 Garnet - Mozambique7 - 7.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
  Garnet - Mahenge Umbalite 7 – 7.5 Nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care 
 Garnet - Musi River Garnet7 - 7.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care  
 Garnet - Orissa Rhodolite
(Also known as Orissa Rose Garnet)
7 - 7.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Garnet - Purple7 - 7.5  nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care  
 Garnet - Pyrope7 - 7.5  nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care  
 Garnet - Ratnapura Hessonite  7 - 7.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Garnet - Redgood to know nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Garnet - Spessartite  7 - 7.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal care n/a
 Garnet - Viceroy Spessartite  7 - 7.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal care n/a
  Goshenite - Brazilian 7.5 to 8   None N/A N/A   N/A Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   n/a
  Grandidierite 7.0 to 7.5   None N/A N/A   N/A Normal Care..   n/a
Gemstone H          
 Helenite5 Artificial glass made from Ash of Mt Helensn/an/a n/aNormal Care  n/a
 Helenite - Champagne5 Artificial glass made from Ash of Mt Helensn/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Helenite - Purple5 Artificial glass made from Ash of Mt Helensn/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
  Heliodor7.5 to 8.0 HeatingTo improve color Always Very good Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.  H
 Howlite3.5 DyeingTo create colorCommonly Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.  D
Gemstone I          
 Indicolite - Monte Belo   7 - 7.5 None n/an/a n/aNormaNormal Care and Handling l Care n/a
 Indicolite - Monte Belo  7-7.5 heatedto improve colorrarely excellentnormal care H
 Iolite - Catalina  7 - 7.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care and handling. n/a
Gemstone J          
 Jade - Burmese6.5 - 7 Bleaching, Dyeing, ImpregnationImprove color, create color, increase durabilityAlways Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. B, D, I
 Jade - Black(Nephrite)6.0 - 6.5 Nonen/an/a n/aAvoid Ultrasonic and Steam cleaners n/a
 Jade - Chinese6.5 - 7 Waxing, Dyeing Improve colorAlways Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. W, D
 Jasper6.5 -7 resin coatedn/an/a n/an/a  
 Jasper - Australian Pibara6.5 -7 resin coated n/an/a n/an/a  
 Jasper - Blood6.5 -7 resin coatedn/an/a n/an/a  
 Jasper - Bumble Bee 6.5 - 7  resin coatedn/an/a n/an/a n/a
 Jasper - Dalmatian 6.5 - 7  resin coatedn/an/a n/an/a n/a
 Jasper - Indian Script Stone6.5 - 7 None n/an/a GoodAvoid sudden temperature changes, steaming, chemicals and ultrasonic  n/a
 Jasper - Mayan Porcelain 7 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Jasper - Mexican Porcelain7 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care  
 Jasper - Peanut Wood 7 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Jasper - Picture6.5 -7 resin coatedn/an/a n/an/a  
 Jasper - Porcelain7 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care  
 Jasper - Rainforest  7 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Jasper - Utah Rhyolite6.5 - 7  resin coatedn/an/a n/an/a  
 Jasper - Venus6.5 -7 resin coatedn/an/a n/an/a  
Gemstone K          
 Kunzite6.5 to 7.0 HeatedTo improve color and remove brownish tonescommonly goodAvoid prolonged exposure to strong light and harsh usage H
 Kunzite: Martha Rocha6.5 to 7.0 n/an/an/a n/aNormal care. Avoid ultrasonic and steam cleaners. Avoid prolonged exposure to high heat or direct light. n/a
  Kunzite - Xia 6.5 to 7   None N/A N/A   N/A Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   n/a
 Kyanite - Green  4 - 7 nonen/an/a n/aAvoid rough handling, temperature changes, chemicals, steaming, and ultrasonic cleaners. n/a
 Kyanite - Himalayan  4 - 7 nonen/an/a n/aAvoid rough handling, temperature changes, chemicals, steaming, and ultrasonic cleaners. n/a
 Kyanite - Orange 6.0 - 7.0 Nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. n/a
 Kyanite - Teal  4 - 7 nonen/an/a n/aAvoid rough handling, temperature changes, chemicals, steaming, and ultrasonic cleaners. n/a
Gemstone L          
 Labradorite - Malagasy  6 - 6.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Labradorite - Finland Spectrolite  6 - 6.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Lapis Lazuli - Afghan5.0-5.5 None n/an/a n/aNormal, gentle handling. Avoid exposure to acids, heat and ultrasonic cleaners. n/a
 Larimar4.5 - 5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Larimar - Nautral Green4.5 - 5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Lepidolite2.5 - 3 nonen/an/a n/aAvoid exposure to high temperature and harsh household chemicals.  
Gemstone M          
 Magnesite3.5 to 4.5 dying; impregnation to improve color; to improve durabilityAlways Very GoodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. D; I
 Malachite - African3.5 - 4  coated with colorless waxto improve appearanceoccasionally fairMalachite is soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners. C, W
 Malachite - African 3.5 - 4 dyedto improve color uniformityoccasionally goodAvoid chemicals, steam, and ultrasonic cleaners. D
 Malachite - African3.5 - 4 impregnated with plastic or other hardened agentsto improve appearance and durabilityrarely goodMalachite is soft, so be mindful of scratching. Avoid chemicals and ultrasonic cleaners. I
 Marcasite - Swiss  6 - 6.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Marialite  5.5- 6  Can be Irradiated Improve Color Occasionally  Very Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  n/a
 Marvelous Meteorites 3-4 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Marvelous Meteorites 3-4 CoatedTo protect and prevent oxidation commonly goodAvoid acids and chemicals C
 Moldavite - Bohemian5.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Mookaite - Kennedy Range   6 - 7 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care  n/a
 Moonstones - Rainbow 6 -6.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. n/a
 Moonstones - Sri Lankan Metallic 6 -6.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Moonstones - Sri Lankan Orange 6 -6.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Moonstones - Sri Lankan Pink 6 -6.5 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Moonstones - Sri Lankan Rainbow  6 - 6.5  nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Morganite - Marropino7.5 - 8 irradiatedto produce colorcommonly excellentNormal Care IR
 Morganite - Marropino  7.5 - 8 heatedto improve colorcommonly excellentNormal Care H
Gemstone N - O          
 Nuummite - Greenland5.5 to 6.0  n/an/an/a n/aCare and Handling: Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.  n/a
 Obsidian - Coffee5.0 - 5.5  None n/an/a n/aAvoid harsh chemicals and ultrasonic  n/a
 Opal - created Black, Blue, Orange5.5 - 6.5  Impregnated with Resin to improve colorusually GoodAvoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic cleaners, and repolishing. I
 Opal - Australian Boulder5.5 - 6.5 n/a n/a n/a  n/a Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic cleaners, and repolishing.  n/a
 Opal - Australian Triplet5.5 - 6.5 Assembledto add colorusually very good Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic cleaners, and repolishing. A
 Opal - Australian Pink7.0 n/an/an/a n/aNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.. n/a
 Opal - Canary6 - 6.5 N/AN/AN/A N/A Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. N/A
 Opal - Caramel6 - 6.5 ImpreganationTo increase durabilityAlways Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. I
 Opal - Ethiopian Welo 5.5- 6 nonen/an/a n/aAvoid steaming, ultrasonic cleaners, harsh chemicals and abrupt temperature changes.  n/a
 Opal - Ethiopian Welo 5.5- 6 impregnatedto improve appearanceoccasionally goodAvoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  I
 Opal - Jalisco Fire 5.0 - 6.5  None N/aN/a N/aAvoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  n/a
 Opal - Lab Created Black Ridge 4.0 Impregnation To increase durabilityAlways Very stableNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. I
 Opal - Mosaic 5 Assembled to improve appearancecommonly goodAvoid rough handling, contact with water, harsh cleaners and extreme temperatures. I
 Opal - Natural Australian5.0 - 6.5  None n/an/a n/aNormal Care, Note: this rough is dyed n/a
 Opal - Oregon Blue 5.5 - 6 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care
Note: this rough is dyed
 D
 Opal - Oregon Peach5.5 - 6.5 nonen/an/a n/a Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. n/a
 Opal - Peruvian Mint Green 5.5 - 6 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Opal - Peruvian Pink 5.5 - 6 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Opal - Sable Ethiopian 5 - 7 Dyed ,impregnated, waxed/oiled Improve Appearance and Stability Occasionally  Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  D,I, W
 Opal - Sierra Madre Purple5.0 - 6.5  None n/an/a n/aNormal Care  n/a
  Opal - Salamanca Fire 5.5 to 6   None N/A N/A   N/A Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   n/a
  Opal - Crimson Fire 5.5 to 6.5   None N/A N/A   N/A Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   N/A
 Orthoclase 6 - 6.5 None n/an/a n/aNormal Care  n/a
 Orthoceras 3.5 - 4.5  None n/an/a n/aNormal Care  n/a
Gemstone P          
 Pearl - Akoya 2.5 - 4  Bleaching; dyeing To remove color; to create colorAlways Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.  B, D
 Pearl - Edison 2.5 - 4  Bleaching; dyeing To remove color; to create colorAlways Very StableDo not use harsh chemicals, steam or ultrasonic cleaners. Pearls should be stored wrapped in a soft cloth. If they require cleaning, soak in warm water with a mild soap, then wrap in a soft cloth to dry. They should be the last item to put on when dressing and the first to take off. B, D
 Pearl - Tahitian 2.5 - 4  None n/an/a n/aDo not use harsh chemicals, steam or ultrasonic cleaners. Pearls should be stored wrapped in a soft cloth. If they require cleaning, soak in warm water with a mild soap, than wrap in a soft cloth to dry. They should be the last item to put on when dressing and the first to take off.  n/a
 Pearl - South Sea 2.5 to 4 Nonen/an/a n/aDo not use harsh chemicals, steam or ultrasonic cleaners. Pearls should be stored wrapped in a soft cloth. If they require cleaning, soak in warm water with a mild soap, than wrap in a soft cloth to dry. They should be the last item to put on when dressing and the first to take off.  n/a
  Petalite 6 to 6.5   None N/A N/A   N/A Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   n/a
 Peridot - Hebei  6.5 - 7 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Peridot - Hebei  6.5 - 7 impregnated, oiled/waxedto approve appearancerarely fair to goodAvoid sudden temperature changes, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. I, W
 Peridot - Hebei  6.5 - 7 filledto improve clarityrarely goodAvoid sudden temperature changes, harsh chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. FF
  Peridot - Arizona 6.5 to 7   None N/A N/A   N/A Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   n/a
  Pinolith - Austrian 3.5 to 4   None N/A N/A   N/A Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   n/a
 Pietersite - Golden 6.5 - 7 Bleached Improve Color Commonly  Very Good Normal Care B
 Pietersite - Hunan  7 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Prasiolite - Montezuma  7 heatedto create colorcommonly excellentNormal Care H
Gemstone Q          
 Quartz - African Lilac7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color always goodAvoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Amazon
(Also known as Smoketrine)
7 Heating To enhance color always Very GoodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.  H
 Quartz - Aurelia Rutilated 7 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Quartz - Arizona Sunset7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
  Quartz - Alexandria 7   Triplet (two natural colorless quartz are joined together with a colored epoxy) to add color always   very good   Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   n/a
 Quartz - Alexandria7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Aqua Terra Costa 7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Blazing Red7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Bohemian Pink7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Brazilian Smokey7 irradiatedto create colorusually goodNormal Care IR
 Quartz - Brazilian Watermelon 7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Blue7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Blue Sapphire7 Triplet (two natural colorless quartz are joined together with a colored epoxy)to add color n/a very good Normal Care A
 Quartz - Black Ridge7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Bi-Color Imperial7 Triplet (two natural colorless quartz are joined together with a colored epoxy)to add colorn/a very good Normal Care A
 Quartz - Capri Blue7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Cherry7 NoneN/AN/A N/ANormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. N/A
 Quartz - Caribbean7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Celestrial Blue7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Ceylon 7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Champagne7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Chartreuse7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Chrome7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Cobalt  7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Copper Bloom7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Crackled Green, Blue, Paraiba, Black, Pink, Purple, Orange7 Heated, Dyed Creates crackling and color Commonly  Very Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  H, D
 Quartz - Drusy   7 Dyed Improve Color Commonly  Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  D
 Quartz - Drusy  7 Coated Improve Color Commonly  Very Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  C
 Quartz - Drusy  7 heatedto improve coloroccasionally excellentNormal care HE
 Quartz - Emerald  (Green Aventurine)7 None n/an/a n/a Normal care n/a
 Quartz - Emeraldine7 Assembled Improve color and stabilityAlways Fair - GoodAvoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished. ASBL
 Quartz - Galilea Rose  7 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
  Quartz - Golden Rutilated 7   Assemble - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always   Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.   n/a
 Quartz - Herkimer Diamond   6.5 - 7 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care  n/a
 Quartz - Indian Ocean7.0 Assembled - TripletImprove stability and create colorAlways Very good Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished. ASBL
 Quartz - Kunzite7 Triplet (two natural colorless quartz are joined together with a colored epoxy)to add colorn/a very good Normal Care A
  Quartz - Indicolita 7   Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color always   Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.   ASBL
 Quartz - Larimar4.5 - 5 Assembled - Doublet Improve Stability and Color Always  Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Lavender Alexite7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always  Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Lemon7   Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color always   Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.   ASBL
 Quartz - Moscato Pink
(Also known as Patroke Quartz)
7 Assembled - Triplet To create colorAlways Very good Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.  A
 Quartz - Madeira7   can be Heated Improve Stability and Color always   Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.   H
 Quartz - Marsala Triplet7   Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color always   Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.   ASBL
 Quartz - Midnight Fuchsia7   Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color always   Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.   ASBL
 Quartz - Morganique7   Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color always   Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.   ASBL
 Quartz - Morganite7 Triplet (two natural colorless quartz are joined together with a colored epoxy)to add colorn/a very good Normal Care A
 Quartz - Mystic Chrome7-7.5 CoatedTo create colorfrequently very goodGentle care. Avoid abrasions. Chipping may reveal natural color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished. Avoid heat, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. C
 Quartz - Mystic Fire7-7.5 CoatedTo create colorfrequently very goodGentle care. Avoid abrasions. Chipping may reveal natural color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished. Avoid heat, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. C
 Quartz - Neon Apatite7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color n/a Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Opulant7-7.5 CoatedTo create colorfrequently very goodGentle care. Avoid abrasions. Chipping may reveal natural color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished. Avoid heat, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. C
 Quartz - Ouro Verde7 irradiated; heatedto induce color; to improve coloralways very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. IR; H
 Quartz - Padparasha7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Color Always  Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Padparasha Color7 Assembled Improve Stability and Color Always  Fair to Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may remove color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Papaya 7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always  Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Paraiba7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always  Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Peacock7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always  Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Peridot7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always  Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Playa
(Also known as La Chiva Quartz) 
7 Triplet to create coloralways very good Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. A
 Quartz - Radiant Orchid 7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always  Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Rainbow Genesis  7 Coated Improve Stability and Color Always  Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  C
 Quartz - Royal Blue7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always  Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Rubellite7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always  Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Ruby7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always  Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Scarlet Red7-7.5 CoatedTo create colorfrequently very goodGentle care. Avoid abrasions. Chipping may reveal natural color. Cannot be re-cut or re- polished. Avoid heat, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. C
 Quartz - Smoketrine7 None n/aRarely  Very Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color.  n/a
 Quartz - Sunfire 7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color n/a Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
 Quartz - Swiss Blue7 Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color n/a Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  ASBL
  Quartz - Salmon 7   Assembled - Triplet Improve Stability and Color Always   Fair - Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Chipping may reveal None Color. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.   ASBL
  Quartz - Sphaleros 7   Assembled - Triplet To create color Always   Very Good Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   A
 Quartzite6.5- 7.0  Dyedto improve durability and appearancecommonly good Avoid abrasives, ultrasonic, solvents and heat. D
Gemstone R          
 Rhodochrosite - Argentinian 3.5 - 4 nonen/an/a n/aRhodochrosite is soft, so be mindful of scratching and chipping. n/a
 Rhodonite - Zaire 5.5 - 6 nonen/an/a n/aNormal, gentle handling n/a
 Rubellite - Nigerian 7 - 7.5 Nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Rubellite - Nigerian 7 - 7.5 HeatedTo improve colorCommonly ExcellentNormal Care H
 Rubellite - Nigerian 7 - 7.5 IrradiatedTo improve colorOccasionally GoodNormal Care R
 Rubellite - Nigerian 7 - 7.5 Oil/Resins to fill fissuresTo improve clarityOccasionally GoodAvoid Harsh Chemicals, Ultrasonic and Steam Cleaners O
 Rubellite - Ouro Fino 7 - 7.5 heatedto improve colorcommonly excellentNormal Care H
 Rubellite - Ouro Fino 7 - 7.5 irradiatedto create coloroccasionally goodNormal Care IR
 Rubellite - Ouro Fino 7 - 7.5 oiled/resin infusedto improve appearanceoccasionally fair to goodAvoid temperature changes, steaming, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. O
 Rubellite - Ouro Fino 7 - 7.5 dyed/stainedto alter colorrarely poor to fairAvoid temperature changes, steaming, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. D
 Ruby9 heatedto improve colorusually good to excellentNormal Care H
 Ruby - John Saul  9 heatedto improve colorusually good to excellentNormal Care H
 Ruby - Kenyan Star 9 fissure filled/Diffusedto improve durability and appearance and Phenomenacommonly fair to goodAvoid harsh chemicals, steam cleaners, and ultrasonic cleaners. FF
  Ruby - Burmese 9   Heating; Fissure Filled To create color; Increase durabilityAlways   Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.  H, FF
 Ruby - Burmese7.9 Heating; Flux Assisted Partial Fissure HealingTo improve color, increase durabilityAlways Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. H, FAPFH
 Ruby - Kenyan Star 9 heatedto improve colorcommonly good to excellentNormal Care H
 Ruby - Mundarara 9 Fissure fillingTo improve durability and appearanceAlways Fair to goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. FF
 Ruby - Niassa
(Also known as African Ruby)
9 fissure filledto improve durability and appearance commonly fair to goodAvoid harsh chemicals, steam cleaners, and ultrasonic cleaners. FF
  Ruby Zoisite 6.5 to 7   None n/a n/a   n/a Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   n/a
Gemstone S          
 Sapphire - Burmese 9 Heated To improve colorOccasionally Very Good Normal Care H
 Sapphire - Ceylon Blue
(Also known as Royal Ceylon Sapphire.)
9 Heating, DiffusionTo create colorUsually, Rarely very good Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. H, DF
  Sapphire - Chocolate 9   None n/a n/a   n/a Normal Care   n/a
 Sapphire - Golden9 heatedto add colorcommonly very good Avoid repolishing/recutting. H
 Sapphire - Kanchanaburi Blue 9 heatedto improve colorusually excellentNormal Care H
 Sapphire - Kanchanaburi Blue 9 surface diffusedto add coloroccasionally goodAvoid repolishing/re-cutting. DF
 Sapphire - Kanchanaburi Blue 9 diffusedto improve coloroccasionally excellentNormal Care DF
 Sapphire - Kanchanaburi Blue 9 Fissure Filled Improve Clarity Rarely  Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  FF
 Sapphire - Kanchanaburi Blue 9 irradiatedto create coloroccasionally very poorFades quickly in light or heat. IR
 Sapphire - Mauve 9 Heating Improve Color Always  Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  H
  Sapphire - Masoala 9   Dyed/Fissure Filled Improve Color Always   Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes   D, FF
 Sapphire - Madagascar 9 DiffusedTo create colorAlways  Very good Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.  D
 Sapphire - Madagascar Purple 9 Diffused, Heated Improve Color and Durability Always  Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  DF, H
 Sapphire - Montana 9 HeatingTo create colorAlways  Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. H
 Sapphire - Niassa Pink 9 fissure filled, heated to improve durability and appearance, to enhance color commonly fair to good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam cleaners, and ultrasonic cleaners. FF H
 Sapphire - Purple 9 Diffused, Heated Improve Color and Durability Always  Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  DF, H
 Sapphire - Sunset9 Diffused, Heated Improve Color and Durability Always Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  DF, H
 Sapphire - Silver 9 None n/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Sapphire - Thai Blue Star 9 Star Diffused Improve Color Rarely  Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-polished or re-cut.  DF
  Sapphire - Yellow 9   Heated to add color always   very good   Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   n/a
 Scapolite - Cat's Eye  5.5 - 6 nonen/an/a n/aAvoid chemicals, steam, ultrasonic cleaners and exposure to strong sunlight.  n/a
 Scapolite - Mocha 5.5 - 6 IrradiationTo create colorAlways Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.  IR
 Shungite 3.5 to 4 n/an/an/a n/aNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. n/a
 Scapolite - Mocha5.5 - 6 Irradiated Improve Color Commonly  Fair - Good Avoid chemicals, steam, ultrasonic cleaners and exposure to strong sunlight. IR
 Seraphinite - Siberian 2.5 - 5.5 nonen/an/a n/aAvoid sudden temperature changes, chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners.  n/a
 Seraphinite - Siberian 2.5 - 5.5 impregnated, waxed/oiledto improve hardness and lustercommonly good to very goodAvoid ultrasonic chemicals and solvents. I, W
 Shadowkite - Table Mountain 2.0-4.0 impregnated to improve color and stability Occasionally  Very Good Avoid scratching, ultrasonic cleaners, harsh household chemicals, prolonged exposure to direct sunlight and excessive heat  I
 Sillimanite - Green  7 - 7.5 Dyed Improve Color Always  Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  D
 Sodalite 5.5 - 6 DyeingTo create colorRarely Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. D
 Sphene - Sava  5 - 5.5 nonen/an/a n/aSphene requires no special care, though it is best suited for earrings and pendants due to its softness. n/a
 Sphene - Sava  5 - 5.5 heatedto create red or orange colorrarely fair to goodSphene requires no special care, though it is best suited for earrings and pendants due to its softness. H
 Spinel - Blue8  DiffusionTo create colorAlways Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. DF
 Spinel - Burmese8 HeatingTo improve colorAlways Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. H
 Spinel - Burmese Platinum8 n/an/an/a n/aNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. n/a
 Spinel - Burmese Red8 HeatingTo create colorAlways Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. H
 Spinel - Burmese Lavender8 n/an/an/a n/aNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. n/a
 Spinel - Mahenge Red 8 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Spinel - Mahenge Purple 8 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Spinel - Thai Black 8 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Stichtite - Tasmanian   1.5 – 2.0 stabilized n/an/a n/aAvoid sudden temperature changes, chemicals, rough handling, heat, and ultrasonic cleaners. n/a
 Strontium Titanate  5 - 5.5 lab created n/an/a n/aNormal, gentle handling Strontium Titanate is a soft stone, so be mindful of scratching. n/a
 Sunstone - Madras6 - 6.5 None n/an/a n/aAvoid sudden temperature changes, chemicals, rough handling, heat, and ultrasonic cleaners. n/a
 Sunstone - Masai  6 - 6.5 None n/an/a n/aAvoid sudden temperature changes, chemicals, rough handling, heat, and ultrasonic cleaners. n/a
 Sunstone - Sri Lankan 6 - 6.5 None n/an/a n/aAvoid sudden temperature changes, chemicals, rough handling, heat, and ultrasonic cleaners. n/a
  Sphene - Madagascar 5.5   None n/a n/a   n/a Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   n/a
  Sphalerite - Picos Altos 3.5 to 4   None n/a n/a   n/a Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   n/a
 Swarovski Crystal - All colors 5.0-5.5 CoatedImprove Color Commonly  Very Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  C
Gemstone T          
 Tanzanite6.5 - 7 Heated Improve Color Always  Excellent Normal Care  H
 Tanzanite - Bondi Blue6.5 - 7 Heated Improve Color Always  Excellent Normal Care  H
 Tanzanite - Natural Green  6.5 - 7 None n/a n/a  n/a Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  n/a
 Tanzanite - Natural Golden6.5 - 7 None n/an/a n/aNormal Care and Handling  n/a
 Tanzanite - Peacock6.5 - 7 Heatingn/aRarely Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. Peacock Tanzanite may be heated as a side-effect of normal tanzanite production. Stones are not heated to enhance color.  H
 Thulite Norwegian6-6.5 CoatedImprove Color and Durability Commonly  Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  C
  Tiger Iron 6.5 to 7   None n/a n/a   n/a Normal Care   n/a
 Tiffany Stone - Utah 6.0 - 7.0  nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Tigers Eye  - South African 7 noneN/acommonly n/anormal care n/a
 Tigers Eye  - South African 7 heatedto alter colorrarely good to very goodAvoid harsh chemicals, ultrasonic cleaners, and steaming. H
 Tigers Eye  - South African 7 Dyedto alter colorrarely good to very goodAvoid harsh chemicals, ultrasonic cleaners, and steaming. D
 Topaz - Blazing Red8 Coated Improve Color Occasionally  Very Good Normal Care and Handling  C
 Topaz - Coral Reef Mystic8 Coated To create color Always Very Good Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.  C
 Topaz - Electric Blue 8 Heated Improve Color Always  Very Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-polished or re-cut.  H
 Topaz - Electric Blue 8 Irradiated Improve Color Always  Very Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-polished or re-cut.  IR
 Topaz - Electric Blue 8 irradiation followed by heat (annealing)to produce to blue colorusually excellentAvoid steaming, ultrasonic cleaners, and abrupt temperature changes. IR, H
 Topaz - Electric Blue 8 nonen/an/a n/aNormal Care n/a
 Topaz - Freedom Blue Mystic 8 Coating To create color Always  Very Good Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. C
 Topaz - London Blue 8 irradiatedto produce to blue colorusually excellentNormal Care IR
 Topaz - London Blue 8 heatedto produce to blue colorusually excellentNormal Care H
 Topaz - London Blue 8 irradiation followed by heat (annealing)to produce to blue colorusually excellentAvoid steaming, ultrasonic cleaners, and abrupt temperature changes. IR, H
 Topaz - Mercury Mystic8 Coated Improve Color Commonly  Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  C
  Topaz - Marambaia 8   Heated/Irradiated to add color always   very good   Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   n/a
  Topaz - Mystic Twilight 8   Coated to create color always   very good   Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   C
  Topaz - Northern Lights Ecstasy 8   Coated to create color always   very good   Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.   C
 Topaz - Northern Lights Mystic 8 Coated Improve Color Commonly  Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  C
 Topaz - Ouro Preto Diamond- Cut  8 None n/an/a n/aNormal Care and Handling  n/a
 Topaz - Prism Blue8 Coated Improve Color Commonly  Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  C
 Topaz - Paraiba8.0 Coated To create color Always Very good Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. C
 Topaz - Purple 8 CoatedTo create colorAlways FairNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. C
 Topaz - Signity8 Coatedto add colorAlways very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners. C
 Tourmaline - Mozambique Paraiba  7 - 7.5 Heated Improved Color rarely Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  H
  Tourmaline - Australian Black 7 to 7.5   None n/a n/a   n/a Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes   H
  Tourmaline - Pink
(Also known as Morro Redondo Pink Tourmaline)
7 to 7.5   Heated Improved Color Rarely   Fair Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes   H
 Turkizite  6.5 - 7.0 None n/an/a n/aAvoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners.  n/a
 Turquoise - Anahi5-6 Dyedto enhance colorcommonly goodAvoid hot water, harsh household chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. D
 Turquoise - Kingman  5 - 6 Stabalized, Zachary Process Improve Durability Always  Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  S,Z
 Turquoise - Mojave  5 - 6 impregnatedto improve appearance commonly Good Avoid  hot water, household chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. I
 Turquoise - Mojave  5 - 6  Waxed/Oiled Improve durability and Appearance Always  Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  W
 Turquoise - Mojave  5 - 6  Dyed Improve Color Rarely  Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  D
 Turquoise - Mojave  5 - 6 Composite Improve durability Always  Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished.  CMP
 Turquoise - Persian 5 - 6 Impregnation Improve durability Always  Good Normal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.  I
 Turquoise - Royston 5 - 6 Stabilization To increase durability Always Very goodNormal Care. Avoid heat, chemicals, ultrasonic and steam cleaners.  S
 Turquoise - Sleeping Beauty  5 - 6  Zachary processto improve durability and appearancecommonly very goodAvoid hot water, harsh household chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. Z
 Turquoise - Sonoran Blue5 - 6 Zachary processto improve durability and appearancecommonly very goodAvoid hot water, harsh household chemicals, and ultrasonic cleaners. Z
 Turquoise, Spiny5.0 to 6.0 Impregnation Improve durabilityCommon GoodAvoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished. I
 Turquoise, Spiny5.0 to 6.0 Dyed Improve colorRarely GoodAvoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished. D
 Turquoise, Spiny5.0 to 6.0 Composite Improve durabilityAlways GoodAvoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished. CMP
 Turquoise, Spiny5.0 to 6.0 Waxed/Oiled Improve appearanceAlways GoodAvoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Cannot be re-cut or re-polished. W
Gemstone U - V          
 Variscite - Utah   3.5-4.5 nonen/an/a n/aColor may fade in strong light. n/a
 Vesuvianite  6.5 None n/an/a n/aAvoid Scratching  n/a
 Vivianite - Australian1.5 - 2.0 nonen/an/a goodVivianite needs to be cared for by keeping it indoors and not exposing it to sunlight for too long as the UV rays will darken it, and if left out it will go completely black.  n/a
Gemstone W - Z          
 Zircon - Cambodian Blue6.5 - 7 HeatedTo enhance colorusually goodAvoid harsh abrasives  H
 Zircon - Umba River6.5 - 7 Heated Improve Color Commonly  Very Good Avoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners. Avoid sudden temperature changes  H
 Zircon - White6.5 - 7 None n/an/a n/aAvoid harsh chemicals, steam and ultrasonic cleaners.  n/a
 Zirconia - Swarovski - All colors8 Coated Improve Color Always  Very Good Avoid Sudden Temperature changes, chemcials, and ultrasonic  C